Water treatment technologies in the United States and most other developed countries, have evolved to their present levels of sophistication from their early beginnings on the basis of methodologies involving chemical additives that cause desirable reactions to occur in accordance with well-known classical textbook equations or involving ion-exchange and de-ionization techniques.
These water technologies have provided, for the most part, satisfactory results in the industrial world when coupled with relatively complex and extensive maintenance and servicing programs. This success may be the main reason for the virtual absence of scientific research on alternate water treatment approaches. Some research, however, has been accomplished on the magnetic treatment of water. The primary initial research in this area has been pursued mostly by European scientists (primarily in Russia) with the bulk of that research being done between 1950 and 1980.
Users' field results with magnetic conditioners in Europe and the U.S. have been somewhat inconsistent although there have been many reports of outstanding effectiveness and cost savings.
The magnetic treatment effects on water solutions are relatively transient, however, lasting for a maximum of about 72 hours. Water treatment with a patented metallic catalyst has been in successful use since to its present state of effectiveness and efficiency.
The effects of catalytic alloy treatment are considerably more profound and longer lasting than the effects of magnetic water treatment although there appears to be some commonality in the chemical principles that are utilized by both of these methods. There are also effects produced by the catalytic method which are not claimed by manufacturers of the magnetic devices.
The two most common forms of scale consist mainly of:
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) (with binders). This forms in hot water heaters, boilers, valves, sinks, shower enclosures, etc. Rust, (in galvanized pipes) or corrosion (in/on copper, brass, aluminum, or chrome).
In order to understand the process by which the 3G-AQUA (Natural Water Conditioning System) inhibits scale buildup (commonly called "lime" or "rust") and the way in which it breaks down and eliminates existing scale, it is necessary to understand the nature of scale and how it is formed.
The Nature of Calcium Carbonate and Magnesium Carbonate Scale (with Binders)
Calcium carbonate, CaCO3, exists in nature as limestone and marble. Silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), and calcium sulfate (CaSO4) are principal impurities in limestone and function as binders (cementing agents). Large deposits of magnesium carbonate, MgCO3, exist in nature with calcium carbonate in the form of dolomite, CACO3 -MgCO3, or as magnesite, MgCO3.
Limestone layers even in high mountainous regions such as the Grand Canyon in Arizona, which has a depth of over one mile, were each formed over millions of years from remains of sea creatures precipitated to the bottom of the ocean where the CaCo3 contained in these remains combined with silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), and/or clay (SiO2 - Al203 - 2 H2O), which serve as binders. In addition, limestone usually includes some MgCO3. In the case of the Grand Canyon, scientists have identified at least seven different limestone layers, each containing shells of marine animals, indicating that the region has been covered by at least seven different oceans in its geological history.
CaCo3 is only very slightly soluble in water, yet large amounts of calcium become dissolved in most water supplies by the action of rain water on limestone. Rain water is somewhat acidic because as it falls through the atmosphere, it encounters carbon dioxide (CO2) with which it reacts to form carbonic acid (H2CO3) as follows:
H2O = CO2 ------> H2CO3 When rain water contacts limestone in the earth, limestone material is dissolved and goes into solution as calcium bicarbonate as follows:
CaCo3 + H2CO3 -----> Ca2+ + 2 HCO3
H2CO <-----> H+ + HCO3
Since the ionization constant of HCO3- is very small, [H+] x [CO3 2-]
KI = [HCO3-]
The addition of H+ ions from the carbonic acid reduces the concentration of CO32-(ions that go into solution in the water from the CaCO3 solid) because the H+ ion and the CO32-ion combine to form the slightly ionized bicarbonate ion HCO3-. The reduction of the concentration of the CO32-ion in the solution causes more CaCO3 to dissolve in the form of Ca2+ + 2 HCO3-in an attempt to saturate the solution and produce a product of the concentrations of Ca2+ and CO32-ions that equals the solubility product.
[Ca2+] x [ CO32-] = Ksp = 1 x 10-9 at 25_C.
Surface waters also dissolve carbon dioxide from soils where it is produced by the slow oxidation and decay of organic materials. As these waters contact limestone, the limestone gradually dissolves. Examples of this action are limestone caves and hard waters from wells.
The Ca2+ + 2 HCO3-that is dissolved in water very readily converts into CaCO3 when water is heated to boiling. The solubility of CaCO3 decreases with increase in temperature and precipitates as CaCO3 as follows:
Heat Ca2+ + 2 HCO3- -----> CaC03----->|, + H2O + C02t
This is the basic reaction that forms the bulk of the 'lime' in water heaters and boilers. This reaction also occurs when water containing Ca(HCO3)2 evaporates and leaves a CaCO3 residue. The above mentioned reactions also apply to magnesium and its bicarbonates and carbonates.
For example: MgCO3 + H2CO3 -----> Mg2+ + 2 HCO3
However, MgCO3 is appreciably more soluble than CaCO3.
[Mg2+] x [CO32-] = Ksp = 1 x 10-5 at25_C Scientists and engineers who have investigated scale formation in various industrial systems have determined that although CaCO3 and MgCO3 form most of the mass of lime-type scale, they require silica (SiO2), alumina (Al203), or calcium sulfate (CaSO4) to act as a binder to hold them in place just as they do in nature.
CaSO4 exists in ionized form when dissolved in water as the ions Ca2+ and So42----->.
The solubility of CaSO4 increases with temperature up to about 100_F and then decreases with increasing temperature. Hence, precipitation of CaSO4 also occurs in water heaters and boilers.
SiO2 and Al2O3 are not ions but are relatively neutral colloidal residues that are slightly soluble in water. SiO2 is found in fresh water in a range of 1 -100mg/liter. At high concentrations (over 50 mg/liter), chemical precipitation appears to occur.
Colloids, including SiO2, Al2O3, and clay (SiO2 -Al2O3 -2 H2O), when suspended in water usually carry a negative charge. If these negative charges (extra electrons) are neutralized (extra electrons removed), the colloids coagulate, precipitate, and combine with (i.e., become absorbed by) CaCO3, MgCO3, and CaSO4 to form typical lime scale.
The denseness and hardness of the scale increases with increased concentrations of SiO2, Al2O3, and/or CaSO4.
Approximately 87 percent of the earth's solid crust consists of silicon compounds. Silica is one of the most abundant compounds of silicon. Aluminum is the most abundant metal and the third most abundant element. The most important ore of aluminum is bauxite, a mixture of hydrated aluminum oxide, Al2O3 - 3 H2O, and iron oxide. Calcium is fifth in abundance of the metals in the earth's crust, of which it forms more than 3 percent.
The 3G-AQUA (Natural Water Conditioning System) consists of many precious and semiprecious metals that form a special electrochemical catalyst. In addition, the core includes multiple venturis configured to prevent flow restriction while providing a high degree of turbulence and increased physical contact between:
(1) the ions and molecules in the water
(2) the core itself, thereby increasing catalytic efficiency.
Why the 3G-AQUA (Natural Water Conditioning System) Core Acts as a Catalyst
All metals give up electrons in their outer atomic shells easily. For this reason, metals are good or excellent electrical conductors. Of all non-radioactive metals, cesium is the least electron acquisitive; it has an electro negativity of 0.7 on the Electro negativity Scale of the Elements.
When water is in the form of ice, the molecules and ions in it are held in a relatively rigid pattern. But in the liquid state, this structure becomes a dynamic, whirling, chaotic dance in which groups of molecules and ions in the solution take turns whirling about one another, breaking their bonds, and finding new groups to find partners with. When water rushes through the 3G-AQUA (Natural Water Conditioning System), the pattern becomes even more frenetic; an electron orbits and associated bondings undergo increased perturbations and stresses, and additional electrons from the 3G-AQUA (Natural Water Conditioning System) core are attracted into the water solution.
Verifiability of the Relative Electro negativities of the 3G-AQUA (Natural Water Conditioning System) Core and the Water Solution
The loss of electrons by the 3G-AQUA (Natural Water Conditioning System) to the water solution is easily verifiable by:
Water (H2O) molecules are excellent electrical insulators; and for this reason, at the low-voltage levels at which these catalytic actions and reactions occur, most of the electrons that are transferred from the 3G-AQUA (Natural Water Conditioning System) to the ions and colloids in the water remain in the solution instead of escaping back to earth ground.
Consequently, most of the additional electrons transferred from earth ground via the 3G-AQUA (Natural Water Conditioning System) to the water solution stay in the solution and are able to provide the negative charges necessary for preventing scale from forming and for decomposing existing scale.
Another important benefit resulting from the negative charging of the colloidal substances such as silica, alumina, and clay is that these substances form a negatively charged microscopic coating on surfaces such as glass, windows, chrome, porcelain, tile, enamel, lacquer, etc. This coating becomes very evident on surfaces such as mirrors and chrome faucets, on which residue from evaporated water is easily wiped off with a damp cloth, leaving a sparkling, wax-like, polished surface finish as mentioned in Section 3.5. Other examples of the effects of these negatively charged colloids is the way toilet bowls stay "ring free" and the way shower enclosures stay cleaner much longer.
In addition to these effects on external surfaces, the increased negativity provided to water solutions keeps soap scum particles in colloidal suspension in the water, inhibiting precipitation of soap scum and formation of "bathtub ring" when regular soap is used instead of detergent-type soap such as Zest. Detergents do not react with calcium to form soap scum but do leave residues with unconditioned waters. Scum and residue that do collect on bathtub or other surfaces are very easily rinsed off with fresh water and also easily go back into colloidal suspension in the same water when the water is splashed on the scum or residue before it is allowed to dry.
Another effect and benefit of the additional electrons in the water solution is the reduction in hydrogen bonding between H2O molecules. H2O molecules link up to each other because of the dipole nature of the individual H2O molecules. The additional negative charges in the solution reduce the bonding of the oxygen atoms of H2O molecules and the hydrogen atoms of other H2O molecules (i.e., hydrogen atoms other than those in their own molecules) by supplying the negative charges (electrons) that the oxygen atoms attract. As a result, there are less hydrogen bonds between the individual H2O molecules. This results in "wetter water," which in turn results in better cleaning water and better soil-leaching water.
The breaking up of the H2O groupings into smaller groupings, because of the decrease in hydrogen bonding, enables soap and detergent to break up into smaller groupings and interface with the smaller H2O groupings. This results in a greatly increased surface area that can come in contact with grease, oil, dirt, and other contaminants in wash water. The surface area increases exponentially with decreases in the size of the groupings.
Consequently, soap, detergents, and shampoos become more efficient and considerably less amounts are required when used with the conditioned water. Typically, people who require two shampooings with unconditioned water require only one shampooing with the conditioned water.
The wetter water also penetrates soil better and faster than unconditioned water. In addition, the increased wetness is supplemented by the salt and scale-dissolving properties of the electron rich water. This results in more effective breaking down and leaching away of the salts accumulated in the soil. Excessive salinity in the root zones in the soil is the primary cause of tip burn in plant and tree leaves. The excessive amounts of salts on and around the roots result in oxidation and reduction reactions that cause certain elements and compounds to be over-absorbed by plant roots and others, that are required for normal health, to be under-absorbed or not absorbed at all.
All other things being equal, the decrease in surface tension due to the decrease in hydrogen bonding of the water molecules reduces the boiling point of water. However, microwave oven tests conducted on equal amounts of conditioned and unconditioned water sometimes show that the boiling point of the conditioned water sample is higher than that of the unconditioned water sample. This apparent paradox can be explained when it is remembered that the gaseous content of the conditioned water is reduced by the 3G-AQUA (Natural Water Conditioning System). This can result in an increase in the molecular weight of the water for the given volume.
According to the van der Waals Attraction Principle, which is used to explain differences in boiling points of different substances, normal molecular substances with larger molecular weight have higher boiling points than those with smaller molecular weight. However, after the unconditioned water is boiled and most of its gases are driven out by the heating, its boiling point will usually be higher because its hydrogen bonding is greater than that of the conditioned water. Results can also vary if the conditioned and the unconditioned water samples are drawn from different homes on the same street and have different amounts of dissolved solids, as when a 3G-AQUA (Natural Water Conditioning System) has been installed and in use in a home for several weeks and has reduced the amount of solids in the water sample contributed by the scale in the plumbing in the house. In any event, 3G-AQUA conditioned water characteristically boils in a steadier, smoother pattern with smaller, more uniform-sized bubbles than does unconditioned water, thereby demonstrating another effect that decreased hydrogen bonding has on water.
Every metal surface contains many small anodes and cathodes. These opposite-polarity sites are caused by:
Because the core alloy of the 3G-AQUA (Natural Water Conditioning System) consists of 12 different metals specially proportioned and processed, and because the core is formed by casting and has relatively rough surfaces, the quantity and power of the anodic and cathodic points have been maximized by the above-mentioned causes (1) and (3).
The 3G-AQUA (Natural Water Conditioning System) core contains thousands of cathodes which supply electrons to positively charged ions in the water (such as H+) but also contains thousands of anodes that remove electrons from negative ions such as Cl-, allowing them to gather together as neutral gases such as Cl2. However, more electrons are supplied by the core to the water solution than are removed from the solution because the core, being metallic, is more electropositive than is the water solution. For this reason, the 3G-AQUA (Natural Water Conditioning System) requires a good electrical path to earth ground in order to have an abundant supply of electrons to add to the solution.
The anodes and cathodes on certain metal surfaces also cause anodic and cathodic reactions that result in typical rusting or corrosion of these surfaces in plumbing systems. However, the 3G-AQUA (Natural Water Conditioning System) core alloy is nonferrous and highly resistant to rusting and corrosion. But in order to render the core even more resistant to corrosion in corrosive waters, the core has been dielectrically isolated from the stainless steel casing; in this configuration, the core's supply of electrons comes from the casing via the electrolytes in the water solution.
The turbulence resulting from the water rushing through the 3G-AQUA (Natural Water Conditioning System) core facilitates the removal of gases by increasing the probabilities of gaseous elements such as Cl0 and N0 contacting other like elements and forming Cl2 gas and N2 gas, respectively. It should be noted that Cl2 (chlorine gas) is 2.49 times as heavy as air, however, and therefore will not rise up into the air at ordinary temperatures. For this reason, chlorine can more easily be smelled in a container only partly filled with chlorinated water conditioned by a 3G-AQUA (Natural Water Conditioning System) than in the case where the container is filled with the water to overflowing.
Rust is a type of corrosion involving the special case of iron. Rust formation requires three electrochemical steps:
The reactions are as follows:
The Fez+ and OH- ions combine to form ferrous hydroxide as follows:
4. Fez+ + 2 OH- -----> FC(oH)2
Rust is formed when Fe(OH)2 is oxidized:
5. 2 Fc(oH)2 + }72 O2 -----> Fe2O3 - 2 H2O
Corrosion is inhibited if the iron is made more negative compared to its surroundings, forcing the anode areas to act as cathodes. This is accomplished by the attraction of some of the extra electrons in the water solution (supplied by the 3G-AQUA (Natural Water Conditioning System)) onto the anodic areas, thereby preventing the ionization of the Fe atoms. The additional electrons also dissolve rust by breaking it into fine colloidal particles (as indicated in equation (5) of Section 3.5) that go into suspension.
In a similar manner, corrosion is also inhibited and dissolved for metals other than iron such as brass and aluminum.
It is interesting to note that the addition of electrons to anodic areas in order to prevent corrosion has been accomplished by other means in industry. This method has been called "cathodic protection." Zinc plating is one example of this method of cathodic protection since zinc has a higher oxidation potential than iron and forces electrons onto the iron. Cathodic protection has also been obtained by driving stakes of magnesium or zinc into the ground and connecting then1 to pipelines or standpipes to be protected.
Water scientists have found that in addition to rust formed simply by corrosion; rust can be formed and deposited by iron-depositing bacteria in the water such as Sphaerotilus and Gallionella. Iron-depositing bacteria prefer water high in ferrous iron, which they convert to insoluble ferric hydroxide, Fe(OH)3, which becomes part of the mucilaginous sheath around the cell. This deposits on galvanized steel pipes and accelerates corrosion rates, which produce additional soluble iron, further increasing the population of iron-depositing bacteria in the system.
The cycle sometimes continues until the whole system is plugged with oxidized iron deposits or until a pipe becomes rusted all the way through its walls. The cathodizing function of the 3G-AQUA (Natural Water Conditioning System) also causes the Fe(OH)3 to break up into fine colloidal particles and go into suspension.
3G-AQUA conditioned water has been found to have noticeable inhibiting effects on algae and fungus/mildew growth. In addition, it has been observed that chlorine stays in swimming pool water longer and does not have to be replenished as often.Chlorine gas dissolved in water hydrolyzes readily according to the following
1. C12 + H2O -----> H+ + C1- + HOCI
Hypochlorous acid (HOCI) is the active microbiocidal ingredient formed by this reaction. This weak acid tends to undergo partial disassociation as follows:
2. E IOCI -----> H+ + OCI
This produces a hydrogen ion and hypochlorite ion. When the pH exceeds 9.5 in unconditioned water, HOCI completely dissociates into H+ + OCI-.
The toxicity of chlorine is thought to be derived not from the chlorine itself or its release of nascent oxygen, but rather from the reaction of the HOCI on the enzyme system of the cell. The superiority of HOC1 over OCI appears to be due to the small molecular size and the electrical neutrality of HOCI, which allow it to pass through the cell membrane.
The 3G-AQUA (Natural Water Conditioning System) decreases the dissociation of HOCI equation (2) by providing additional electrons to the water solution which has the net effect of inhibiting the rise in the ph of swimming pool water.
This is due to inhibition of the following reaction, which occurs at alkalinity levels above pH 8.4.
3. HCO3 -----> H+ + CO32
Where H+ breaks away from CO32-. These inhibiting effects appear to be due to the net decrease in oxidation reactions that take place in the conditioned water as compared to the amount that takes place in non-conditioned water. Oxidation reactions involve the removal of electrons from elements low on the Electronegativity Scale and high on the Electromotive Series by elements or radicals at the opposite polarity. By supplying electrons to the water solution, the oxidation reactions appear to be inhibited to a significant extent.
Another result of the inhibiting of the dissociation of OCI-from HOCI is that the chlorine concentration in swimming pools in preserved for longer periods of time because OCI-is more easily broken down by sunlight than is HOCI.
The ability of the 3G-AQUA (Natural Water Conditioning System) to reduce the gaseous content of the water solution probably also contributes to inhibition of algae growth. Algae requires nitrogen as well as phosphorous and sunlight for growth. By reducing the nitrogen content of the water, the 3G-AQUA (Natural Water Conditioning System) reduces the nutrient supply of algae.
The reduction of mildew and fungus growth commonly reported by users of the 3G-AQUA (Natural Water Conditioning System) can be explained by:
The potable water supplied to us is basically electron-deficient and not in optimum states of equilibrium. In accordance with the electro negativities of chemical elements and the oxidation potentials of the elements as listed in the Electro negativity Scale and the Electromotive Series, respectively, the 3G-AQUA (Natural Water Conditioning System) provides electrons to the water solution in a catalytic manner to reduce electron deficiencies in the water. This enables electrochemical changes to occur that:
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